Le pouvoir des sans-pouvoir chinois

LONDRES – A peine avais-je fini de lire un article élogieux sur Václav Havel, le dramaturge devenu dissident, puis révolutionnaire pacifiste et enfin président de la République tchèque, récemment décédé, que deux autres nouvelles plaçaient l’extraordinaire carrière de Havel en perspective : la mort de Kim Jong-il, le leader suprême de la Corée du Nord, souffrant d’une dépendance à la pornographie et propagandiste de l’arme nucléaire, et les protestations pacifiques des villageois de Wukan contre l’expropriation de leurs terres, dans la province du Guangdong dans le sud de la Chine.

Si Havel a parfois pu douter de son influence positive sur le monde, j’espère qu’il a eu l’occasion d’entendre parler des événements de Wukan avant de mourir. Ce village de pêcheurs de 6000 âmes a démontré une nouvelle fois le « pouvoir des sans-pouvoir » dont Havel s’était fait l’apôtre pour contester les régimes totalitaires, par des manifestations d’une telle dignité et discipline qu’elles ont galvanisé la Chine comme aucune autre expression de protestation populaire depuis les événements de la place Tiananmen au printemps 1989.

Kim Jong-il était, d’une certaine manière, l’anti-Havel, manquant non seulement de scrupules, mais également des préoccupations qu’ont généralement les dictateurs à propos de la gestion d’un pays. Son décès m’a rappelé celui de Mao Zedong, avec toute l’hystérie collective – réelle et feinte – qui accompagne la disparition d’un dieu auto-proclamé.

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