挫折的政治

        极端贫困是否酝酿暴力并最终导致革命?许多人这样认为,并且寻求用这一理论来解释从游击队叛乱到伊斯兰恐怖主义的现象。

        但是,十九世纪两位伟大的社会学家卡尔·马克思和阿利克西斯·德托克维尔更为深刻理解是何种力量驱动人们并改变社会。极端贫困酝酿的是无动于衷,而非谋反。穷苦的人们可资利用来不时地示威表达愤怒,但他们并非是恐怖份子或革命者的前体。

        那些已经开始朝着新的环境转变、但是发现其转变之路被封死的人们是社会中远更为决定性的团体。他们的愿望和抱负在那些境况下并非不切实际,但是他们遭受挫折。由于他们所无能为力的原因,事情并非如他们所想得一般快速改变,甚至纹丝不动。机会存在,但是无法把握或实现。

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