Dean Rohrer

Une autre vision de la Corne de l'Afrique

HARGEISA – La sécheresse, la famine, les réfugiés, la piraterie, la violence et le terrorisme sont endémiques à Mogadiscio, une ville anéantie, une capitale ruinée par la guerre civile. En tout cas, ce sont les images de la Corne de l'Afrique qui viennent à l'esprit du commun des mortels. Pourtant, une telle vision est non seulement gravement univoque, mais également inconsidérée et dangereuse.

Derrière l'image d'une région prise au piège du chaos et du désespoir, il y a l'économie en pleine croissance, les réformes adoptées de plus en plus nombreuses, et une meilleure gouvernance. Par ailleurs, le gouvernement du Yémen étant en pleine implosion de l'autre côté de la Mer Rouge, la Corne de l'Afrique est importante d'un point de vue stratégique, car le transport maritime du pétrole est devenu un problème prioritaire en matière de sécurité mondiale. En résumé, la Corne de l'Afrique est trop importante pour rester méconnue ou mésestimée.

Bien sûr, personne n'est en droit de nier l'importance de la lutte contre la famine, la piraterie, et les groupes terroristes comme Al-Shabaab, dont les membres, des islamistes radicaux, n'hésitent pas à commettre des meurtres. Mais parrallèlement à cela, dans ma patrie, le Somaliland, des élections présidentielles libres et justes – mais néanmoins contestées – ont eu lieu pour la troisième fois consécutive. Et le développement économique de l'Éthiopie, l'un des plus dynamiques au monde, avec un PIB en hausse de 10,9% sur les années 2010-2011, permet maintenant au pays de rivaliser avec la Chine et les pays d'Afrique les plus prospères. En effet, l'Éthiopie est l'un des rares pays en mesure d'atteindre en 2015 l'intégralité des Objectifs du Millénaire pour le Développement établis par les Nations Unies.

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