L'autre Europe centrale

Un spectre hante l'Europe centrale alors que ses pays se préparent à rejoindre l'Union européenne. Ce développement prometteur est compromis par un nationalisme électoral enfiévré qui cherche à gagner des votes en promettant de rouvrir les anciennes blessures et de régler les vieux comptes.

L'exemple le plus frappant vient de Hongrie, où le Premier ministre Viktor Orban a exigé l'abrogation des décrets adoptés en 1945 par le président Edvard Benes (décrets qui confisquaient les biens des populations allemandes et hongroises déportées de Tchécoslovaquie à cette période et qui leur enlevaient leur citoyenneté) dans le cadre d'une campagne de réélection qui n'a pas abouti de justesse. Mais Orban n'est pas le seul à voir un avantage électoral dans l'évocation des souvenirs d'anciens fantômes.

Orban a soutenu que la révocation des « décrets Benes » devait être une condition de l'intégration de la République tchèque (ainsi que de la Slovéquie) dans l'Union européenne. La mauvaise volonté inspirée par la manoeuvre d'Orban a interrompu une grande partie de la coopération régionale mise en place durant la dernière décennie. A la place, une nouvelle forme menaçante de populisme national est en train d'émerger dans la plaine qui s'étend entre la Bavière et le Danube.

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