Las nuevas-viejas políticas de la globalización

Los debates y las protestas sobre la globalización han enmudecido desde los ataques terroristas de septiembre. No obstante, ese silencio no significa que se hayan acabado. De hecho, es probable que las protestas sobre la globalización regresen al normalizarse los tiempos. Cuando lo hagan, nuestra comprensión del proceso será mejor si echamos una ojeada a la historia.

Entre los historiadores, la globalización genera una fuerte sensación de déjà vu : así estábamos hace un siglo. En esa época hubo grandes logros (progreso material, tecnologías novedosas como el automóvil, el teléfono, la máquina de escribir), pero también protestas en contra de un mundo que parecía estar fuera del control de las instituciones políticas tradicionales.

Entonces, como ahora, las reacciones provenían principalmente de los países industriales ricos, más que de las naciones periféricas pobres, a las que frecuentemente se consideraba como víctimas de la explotación capitalista. Fueron los países avanzados los que impusieron tarifas en contra de la competencia ``desleal'' del exterior. Se establecieron bancos centrales que tenían la responsabilidad de manejar los flujos desordenados de capital. Las políticas migratorias se hicieron más restrictivas, a medida que algunos de los grandes receptores de migración comenzarón a discutir sobre la selectividad en su selección de migrantes.

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