Новая/ старая политика глобализации

Дебаты и протесты по поводу глобализации звучат приглушенно после террористических актов в сентябре прошлого года. Однако это затишье вовсе не означает, что они прекратились навсегда. Протесты по поводу глобализации, вероятно, возобновятся с возвращением жизни в нормальную колею. И, когда это случится, наше понимание процесса глобализации будет гораздо лучше, если мы заглянем в историю.

У историков глобализация вызывает острое ощущение дежа-вю: мы уже были здесь сто лет тому назад. Уже имели место великие достижения - материальный прогресс, ошеломляющие новые изобретения, такие как автомобиль, телефон, пишущая машинка , - наряду с которыми звучали протесты против мира, казалось, вышедшего из-под контроля традиционных политических институтов.

А затем, как и сегодня, негативная реакция последовала со стороны, главным образом, богатых индустриальных держав, а не бедных периферийных стран, часто считавшихся объектами капиталистической эксплуатации. Именно высокоразвитые страны установили тарифные ставки для предотвращения ``недобросовестной'' конкуренции из-за границы. Центральные банки были учреждены для управления беспорядочными потоками капитала. Миграционная политика ужесточилась после того, как некоторые страны, ставшие основными объектами иммиграции, начали обсуждать вопрос избирательного подхода при приеме иммигрантов.

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