El Nuevo Problema Alemán

Ahora que Alemania se prepara para elegir un nuevo canciller, los dos candidatos principales, Gerhard Schroeder y Edmund Stoiber, han mostrado estar de acuerdo en una cosa: debe reducirse el desempleo. Durante las últimas dos décadas el alto desempleo ha transformado a Europa en general y a Alemania en particular en una bomba sociológica de tiempo. ¿Qué harán los desempleados -sobre todo los que llevan largo tiempo sin trabajo y tienen sólo vagas memorias de lo que significa estar integrado al mundo del empleo- con su tiempo y consigo mismos? ¿Qué sucederá con la confianza que se le tiene a los gobiernos que no pueden resolver el problema?

Es fácil olvidar que hace apenas un poco más de 50 años Europa era el continente más violento del mundo. Los europeos se la pasaron los cuarenta años previos matándose unos a otros en una escala que no tenía precedente en la historia del ser humano. Contrario a tal retraso, después de 1950 Europa Occidental fue notablemente pacífica y estable, incluso tomando en consideración la caída de la Cuarta República Francesa y las transiciones de dictadura a democracia acontecidas en Portugal, España y Grecia.

La transformación más sobresaliente de todas fue la de la República Federal de Alemania. Cualquiera familiarizado con la historia alemana a partir de 1800 se encuentra todavía sorprendido ante el entusiasmo con el que la nación que emergió de una derrota total en 1945 adoptó lo que muchas personas de las generaciones previas habrían llamado "inadecuados" modelos políticos y económicos anglo-franceses. Sin la paz y estabilidad que eso le aseguró a Alemania, la nación lingüística más grande al oeste de Rusia, resulta difícil imaginar la paz y estabilidad que reinan en la actualidad en toda Europa.

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