Der Mythos vom schiitischen Halbmond

AMMAN: Vor kurzem legte der israelische Vize-Premierminister Shaul Mofaz in einer Schlüsselfrage des Nahost-Friedensprozesses unmissverständlich sein Veto ein. Die Rückgabe der Golanhöhen an Syrien käme der Errichtung eines „iranischen Stützpunktes“ an der israelischen Grenze gleich und  wäre daher nicht nur politisch naiv, sondern überhaupt gegen jede Vernunft.

Mofaz’ Kommentar ist symptomatisch für eine Vorstellung, die nicht nur im Nahen und Mittleren Osten, sondern auch in den USA tief verwurzelt ist. Der Iran wird als hegemoniale Macht gesehen, die versucht durch eine Reihe schiitischer Handlanger die Region zu dominieren. Diese fünfte Kolonne des Iran soll sich von Beirut über Damaskus und Gaza bis Bagdad und schließlich vom Iran über Saudi Arabien bis in den Jemen erstrecken.

Ironischerweise bringt diese Sicht der Dinge Israel so manch merkwürdigen Partner ein. Der ägyptische Präsident Hosni Mubarak behauptet, dass die Schiiten „dem Iran gegenüber immer loyal“ seien, während König Abdullah von Jordanien das Schlagwort vom aufgehenden „schiitischen Halbmond“ prägte. Dieser „Aufstieg der Schiiten“ und die daraus resultierende „Spaltung zwischen Schiiten und Sunniten“ soll für die immer tiefere Kluft in der Region verantwortlich sein.

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