Le mythe du croissant chiite

AMMAN – Le vice Premier ministre israélien Shaul Mofaz a récemment opposé un veto sans équivoque à une question clé du processus de paix au Proche-Orient. D’après lui, le retour du plateau du Golan à la Syrie constituerait une tête de pont de l’Iran à la frontière israélienne et serait donc une décision non seulement naïve au plan politique, mais également irrationnelle.

La déclaration de Mofaz est symptomatique d’une perception  profondément enracinée aujourd’hui, que ce soit au Proche-Orient ou aux Etats-Unis : celle d’un Iran hégémonique qui cherche à asseoir sa prédominance dans la région au moyen d’un réseau d’alliés chiites. Cette cinquième colonne iranienne s’étendrait de Beyrouth à Damas, de Gaza à Bagdad et enfin de l’Iran au Yémen en passant par l’Arabie saoudite. Les récents affrontements armés entre le Hezbollah et le gouvernement libanais ne sont, dit-on, qu’une nouvelle manifestation de cette influence hégémonique iranienne.

Non sans ironie, cette perception a apporté des alliés inattendus à Israël. Le président égyptien Hosni Moubarak a déclaré que « la loyauté » des chiites arabes « allait toujours à l’Iran », tandis que le roi Abdallah II de Jordanie est l’auteur de l’axiome sur l’émergence d’un « croissant chiite ». Cette montée en puissance des chiites et le « clivage sunnite-chiite » qui en résulte serait à l’origine du gouffre qui va s’approfondissant dans la région.

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