Le mythe de l’« Eurabie »

LONDRES – On entend souvent dire que les jeunes musulmans européens sont prédisposés au terrorisme, que l’Islam conduit à la radicalisation et que les musulmans, en raison de leurs croyances, choisissent de vivre dans des ghettos pour former des pépinières de terroristes. La forme la plus extrême de ce discours est l’idée de l’« Eurabie », terme incendiaire censé décrire le phénomène suivant : les hordes musulmanes contamineraient l’ADN même de l’Europe.

Dans ce discours, c’est la crainte du terrorisme local qui résonne le plus, avec le fait de traiter les Musulmans comme des ennemis étrangers. L’idée de concilier les différences religieuses semble donc dangereuse. Une fausse dichotomie est née – les Musulmans doivent choisir entre une identité européenne et occidentale et une identité islamique soi-disant séparée.

La relation entre la foi des musulmans européens et l’identification avec les nations européennes est conforme au stéréotype de l’« Eurabie ». La vaste étude Gallup à l’échelle mondiale a culminé avec Who Speaks for Islam: What a Billion Muslims Really Think (de John L. Esposito et Dalia Mogahed), ouvrage comprenant une analyse détaillée et sophistiquée des attitudes musulmanes en Europe. Selon les conclusions de l’étude, les identités religieuses et nationales sont des complémentaires et non concurrentes.

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