Las lecciones de Liberia

La última semana en las Naciones Unidas, el Secretario de Estado de EEUU, Colin Powell, y el Secretario General de la ONU, Kofi Annan, hicieron un llamado conjunto para pedir una ayuda rápida y sustancial para Liberia, que se encuentra al filo de la navaja entre la posibilidad de recuperarse o caer nuevamente en la violencia. La respuesta fue gratificante: la Unión Europea apoyó completamente los esfuerzos por reconstruir esa destrozada nación. Casi cien países participaron en la reunión, prometiendo a Liberia más de $500 millones en ayuda para la reconstrucción.

Muchos observadores vieron esta muestra de unanimidad como un notable contraste con las profundas divisiones en la comunidad mundial acerca de la guerra de Irak. Pero en muchos sentidos es Irak el caso anómalo. El consenso internacional acerca de la urgente necesidad de pacificar y reconstruir Liberia, bajo el liderazgo de una ONU guiada por un Consejo de Seguridad unido, está en la línea de las respuestas globales a los acuerdos de paz en muchos otros conflictos nacionales y regionales, como los de Timor Oriental, Cambodia, Mozambique, y Sierra Leona y Costa de Marfil, países vecinos de Liberia.

Pero a pesar del consenso global acerca de la necesidad de aprovechar estos momentos, con demasiada frecuencia nos vemos luchando contra el tiempo después de que se han producido los hechos, de una manera ad hoc, para convocar donantes de buena voluntad y organizar equipos de expertos y profesionales de la logística para entregar una ayuda que es urgentemente necesaria. Incluso en el mejor de los casos, como hemos visto con Liberia, donde en agosto se firmó un acuerdo de paz, esto demora un tiempo peligrosamente largo. Antes de que ocurra la próxima Liberia, el mundo necesita encontrar una manera de proporcionar recursos para lograr la paz mucho, mucho más rápido.

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