Меры жесткой экономии в малых странах

БРЮССЕЛЬ – Интерес к экономической политике малых стран, как правило, ограничивается небольшим числом специалистов. Но бывают случаи, когда опыт малых стран интерпретируется во всем мире как доказательство того, что определенный политический подход работает лучше всего.

Сегодня Греция, страны Балтии, а также Исландии часто упоминаются в спорах за или против мер строгой экономии. Например, лауреат Нобелевской премии экономист Пол Кругман считает, что тот факт, что ВВП Латвии по-прежнему более чем на 10% ниже своего докризисного пика, показывает, что подход «мер строгой экономии вкупе с застоем в заработной плате» не работает и что Исландия, которая не была подвержена мерам жесткой экономии извне и которая девальвировала свою валюту, выглядит гораздо лучше. Другие, однако, отметили, что Эстония, которая следовала мерам строгой экономии в разгар кризиса, избежала финансового кризиса и теперь снова энергично растет, в то время как Греция, которая отложила ужесточение бюджетной политики на слишком долгое время, пережила глубокий кризис и погрязла в рецессии.

Обе стороны в этих спорах обычно не упоминают ключевые отличительные характеристики и конкретные начальные условия, которые могут сделать прямое сравнение бессмысленным.

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