Sparpolitik in kleinen Ländern

BRÜSSEL – Normalerweise ist das Interesse an der Wirtschaftspolitik kleiner Länder auf eine kleine Zahl an Spezialisten beschränkt. Zu manchen Zeiten allerdings werden die Erfahrungen kleiner Länder weltweit als Beweis dafür gewertet, dass ein bestimmter wirtschaftspolitischer Ansatz am besten funktioniert.

Wenn es darum geht, für oder gegen Sparmaßnahmen zu argumentieren, wird heute oftmals auf Griechenland, die baltischen Staaten und Island verwiesen. So meint etwa der mit dem Nobelpreis ausgezeichnete Ökonom Paul Krugman: Die Tatsache, dass das lettische BIP immer noch 10 Prozent unter seinem Spitzenwert aus der Zeit vor der Krise liegt,  zeige, dass die Kombination aus Sparpolitik und Lohndämpfung nicht funktioniert und dass Island, das keiner von außen verordneten Sparpolitik unterlag und seine Währung abwertete, viel besser dasteht. Andere wiederum verweisen auf Estland, das im Gefolge der Krise eine strikte Sparpolitik verfolgte, eine Finanzkrise vermied und mittlerweile wieder ein kräftiges Wachstum aufweist, wohingegen Griechenland, das seine fiskalische Anpassung zu lange hinauszögerte, tief in die Krise geriet und immer noch in der Rezession verharrt.

Verschwiegen werden in dieser Auseinandersetzung von beiden Seiten üblicherweise die wichtigsten idiosynkratischen Merkmale der Länder und die speziellen Ausgangsbedingungen, die direkte Vergleiche bedeutungslos machen können.

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