Paul Lachine

La Troika Europea Deve Crescere

PARGI – All’inizio del 2010, un gruppo di uomini (e alcune donne) in abito scuro atterrò ad Atene. Appartenevano ad una istituzione mondiale, il Fondo Monetario Internazionale, e a due istituzioni regionali, la Commissione Europea e la Banca Centrale Europea. La loro missione era quella di negoziare i termini e le condizioni di un piano di salvataggio finanziario per la Grecia. Qualche mese più tardi, quella che divenne nota come la “troika” venne spedita in Irlanda, poi in Portogallo, e quindi a Cipro.

Questa impresa era destinata ad avere vaste implicazioni. La troika ha trattato quello che ha finito con l’essere, fino ad oggi, il più grande pacchetto di assistenza finanziaria di sempre: si è stabilito che i prestiti verso la Grecia da parte del FMI e dei partner europei raggiungano i 240 miliardi di euro (310 miliardi di dollari), cioé il 130% del PIL del paese del 2013 - molto più di quanto abbia mai ricevuto qualsiasi altro paese, sia in valore assoluto e che in termini relativi. Anche i prestiti verso l’Irlanda (85 miliardi di euro) ed il Portogallo (78 miliardi di euro) sono significativamente più grandi di quelli normalmente forniti dal FMI.

Inoltre, la cooperazione tra le tre istituzioni è senza precedenti. Nel 1997-1998, durante la crisi asiatica, il G-7 respinse seccamente la proposta del Giappone di un Fondo Monetario Asiatico. Ora il FMI ha accettato addirittura un ruolo di “creditore di minoranza”, acconsentendo che il grosso degli aiuti provenga dal Meccanismo Europeo di Stabilità (ESM), una nuova istituzione, spesso considerata come un Fondo Monetario Europeo a livello embrionale.

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