Paul Lachine

El monopolio del Kremlin empieza a fallar

CAMBRIDGE – Desde que Vladimir Putin pasó a ocupar el poder hace un decenio, el régimen del Kremlin ha dependido de dos pilares: las fuerzas de seguridad y las exportaciones de energía. Al suprimir a los rivales internos y apropiarse sus activos, el régimen creó un doble monopolio.

La redistribución de algunos de los beneficios resultantes de los altos precios de la energía permitió al régimen mejorar los niveles de vida y granjearse popularidad entre los rusos de a pie. Además, la resolución de los problemas internos mediante un uso desproporcionado de la fuerza tranquilizó incluso a los ex miembros del KGB obsesionados con la seguridad del régimen.

Hasta hace poco, esa combinación de zanahorias y palos funcionó con eficacia. La práctica inexistencia de protesta popular en Rusia durante los años de Putin parece asombrosa, pero no hay que confundirse: los niveles de popularidad de Putin no se debían a su vigor, humor o mística, sino a unos salarios y créditos de los que los rusos nunca habían disfrutado y, mientras los precios del petróleo fueron aumentando más que los salarios rusos, los ocupantes del poder pudieron seguir apropiándose de una gran tajada de los beneficios.

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