Das juristische Blutbad von Srebrenica

Das Urteil des Internationalen Gerichtshof (IGH) zur Frage der serbischen Beteiligung am Blutbad an bosnischen Muslimen in Srebrenica 1995 sollte mit beträchtlicher Zwiespältigkeit aufgenommen werden. Einerseits ist die Tatsache, dass ein internationales Tribunal über die Verantwortung eines Staates in Fragen des Völkermodes befunden hat, eine unbestreitbar positive Entwicklung. Andererseits hat das Gericht eines jener Urteile gefällt, die versuchen, jedem etwas zu bieten und dabei alles beim Alten zu belassen.

Das Gericht hatte nicht die Aufgabe, über die strafrechtliche Verantwortung einzelner Personen zu befinden; dies ist Aufgabe des Internationalen Strafgerichtshofes für das frühere Jugoslawien (ICTY). Der IGH, der sich stattdessen mit Streitigkeiten zwischen Staaten befasst, hatte sich mit der Anklage Bosniens auseinander zu setzen, wonach Serbien für das Blutbad von Srebrenica verantwortlich sei. Obwohl das Gericht befand, dass tatsächlich ein Völkermord stattgefunden habe, entschied es, dass Serbien hierfür nach internationalem Recht nicht verantwortlich zu machen sei.

Laut dem Gericht handelten die bosnisch-serbischen Generäle, die die Schuld an diesem Völkermord trugen – die verschiedenen Mladics und Kristics – weder als Serbiens Beauftragte, noch erhielten sie aus Belgrad spezifische Anweisungen. Der Völkermord könne daher nicht Serbien angelastet werden, selbst wenn die serbische Regierung Mladic und seinen Kollegen ihren Sold zahlte und sie finanziell und militärisch unterstützte. Ebenso wenig sei Serbien der Mittäterschaft schuldig, weil es zwar einen beträchtlichen Einfluss auf Mladic und seine Leute ausgeübt habe, zum Zeitpunkt des Völkermordes jedoch nicht gewusst habe, dass gerade ein derartiges Verbrechen begangen wurde.

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