Le naufrage de la Côte d’Ivoire

Le joyau de l’Afrique de l’Ouest se brise. Le miracle de la Côte d’Ivoire s’est transformé en enfer, un enfer dans lequel les Ivoiriens comme les étrangers vivent dans la peur.

Depuis l’arrivée d’un petit contingent militaire français en 2003, l’horreur de cette dernière guerre civile africaine apparaît par intermittence dans les médias internationaux. Tel a été le cas en novembre dernier, lorsque sept soldats français ont été tués lors d’un raid aérien des forces gouvernementales contre les rebelles du Nord, la France répliquant par la destruction de la minuscule aviation ivoirienne. Le mandat des forces de maintien de la paix arrivant à son terme le 4 avril, la France pourrait décider de se retirer. Beaucoup d’Ivoiriens craignent que cela ne ravive la guerre civile.

Mais plutôt que d’une intervention extérieure, la Côte d’Ivoire a besoin de parvenir à résoudre elle-même ses problèmes. Elle doit surtout éviter le nationalisme ethnique pervers de ces dernières années qui a conduit à interdire aux membres d’un groupe ethnique de se présenter à l’élection présidentielle. Sans une solution qui dispose d’un large soutien, la Côte d’Ivoire va sans doute rejoindre les Etats qui ont éclaté, précisément à cause de leur incapacité à développer une cohésion nationale basée sur des droits politiques identiques pour tous.

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