La defensa islámica de la libertad religiosa

ANKARA – El Patriarca Ecuménico Bartolomé de la Iglesia Ortodoxa dijo recientemente en la televisión estadounidense que se siente “crucificado” en Turquía, lo que provocó el enojo de muchos turcos. Desafortunadamente, su Santidad tiene razón. No obstante, su queja no es con el Islam sino con la República de Turquía secular. 

El Estado turco ha mantenido cerrado desde 1971 el seminario de Halki, la única institución capaz de formar a los sacerdotes ortodoxos. Incluso el título del Patriarca, “Ecuménico” es objeto de ataques por algunos funcionarios turcos y sus seguidores nacionalistas. Cada año, los informes internacionales sobre la libertad religiosa hablan con preocupación de dichas presiones al patriarcado, y hacen bien. ¿Pero, por qué hace Turquía todo esto? ¿Cuál es la fuente del problema?  

Las cosas estaban mejor hace mucho tiempo. El primer gobernante turco en reinar sobre el Patriarcado Ecuménico fue Mehmed II, el sultán otomano que conquistó Constantinopla en 1453. En consonancia con la tradición islámica de aceptar los “Pueblos del Libro”, el joven sultán concedió la amnistía al patriarcado. También otorgó a la institución muchos privilegios y poderes, no menos de los que existían con los emperadores bizantinos. Los armenios y los judíos después disfrutaron de las mismas autonomías. 

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