Margaret Scott

L’irrésistible ascension du renminbi

BEIJING – Dernièrement, la Chine a pris des mesures importantes pour encourager une plus grande utilisation de sa monnaie, le renminbi, au plan international. Elle a conclu des contrats d’échanges de devises avec l’Argentine, le Belarus, Hong Kong, l’Indonésie, la Corée du Sud et la Malaisie. L’été dernier, elle a élargi les accords de règlements existants entre Hong Kong et cinq villes de Chine continentale et a autorisé le groupe bancaire HSBC Holdings à vendre des émissions libellées en renminbi à Hong Kong. Enfin, en septembre dernier, le gouvernement chinois a émis à Hong Kong des obligations libellées en renminbi pour près de 1 milliard de dollar.

Toutes ces mesures ont pour but de réduire la dépendance envers le dollar, à la fois aux plans intérieur et extérieur, en encourageant les importateurs, les exportateurs et les investisseurs à utiliser davantage la monnaie chinoise. L’objectif final est pour la Chine d’obtenir la flexibilité et les prérogatives financières qui accompagnent le fait d’être un pays disposant d'une monnaie de réserve.

Personne ne doute de l’ascension du renminbi. Pour les mêmes raisons qui ont fait que l’économie mondiale est devenue plus multipolaire, le système monétaire international deviendra lui aussi plus multipolaire, avec plusieurs devises ayant un statut de monnaie de réserve. Et personne ne doute que le renminbi soit un jour une devise internationale de premier plan, compte tenu de la taille de la Chine et de ses perspectives de croissance.

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