Los irrefrenables años 1930

LONDRES – La cumbre del G-20 que acaba de concluir en Seúl terminó sin un acuerdo ni sobre las monedas ni sobre el comercio. China y Estados Unidos se acusaron mutuamente de manipular deliberadamente sus monedas para obtener una ventaja comercial. La Ronda de Doha de conversaciones sobre comercio global sigue estancada. Y, en medio de todo lo que se habla sobre los “riesgos” de nuevas guerras de divisas y comerciales, esas guerras ya empezaron.

En consecuencia, aunque los líderes globales prometan que no va a suceder, da la impresión de que el atroz precedente proteccionista de los años 1930 está por volver a cobrar vida. La guerra comercial de aquella década fue iniciada por Estados Unidos con el arancel Smoot-Hawley de 1930. Los británicos tomaron represalias con la Ley de Derechos de Importación de 1932, seguida por la Preferencia Imperial. En poco tiempo, la economía mundial era un matorral de barreras comerciales.

Gran Bretaña hizo el primer disparo en la guerra de monedas de los años 1930 al abandonar el patrón oro en septiembre de 1931. Estados Unidos se vengó abandonando el patrón oro en abril de 1933. La libra cayó frente al dólar, luego el dólar frente a la libra.

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