国际原子能机构成立50周年

今年夏天国际原子能机构成立50周年给人们提供机会来检讨这一世界上最为重要的核子监督组织。这一时机正是发生在该机构对核子安全承担了越来越大责任的时候。最近派遣检查员核实北韩关闭武器反应堆以及继续弄清楚伊朗的核子野心仅仅是该机构监督职能的最为明显的例证。

但是,尽管人们应当庆贺,但是,该机构是否能够提高其能力打击核子扩散以及促进核子电力工厂的安全依然存有疑问。历史表明,如果没有更大的权限,该机构将无法大幅度降低全球核子风险。

国际原子能机构发端于冷战早期黑暗的日子。美国总统艾森豪威尔在1953年12月向联合国大会发表的“原子换和平”的演说中,通过呼吁建立存有超级大国裂变原料的国际核子原料储存机构来寻求缓和与苏联之间的核武器竞赛,可以通过一个新的全球核子组织来进行管理。尽管原料储存机构没有形成,但是,建立组织的种子却生了根,并在1957年成立了国际原子能机构。

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