Kroky k vyvážení ekonomiky

LONDÝN – Všichni víme, jak začala globální hospodářská krize. Banky přehnaně půjčovaly trhu nemovitostí. Následné prasknutí realitní bubliny ve Spojených státech způsobilo krach bank, poněvadž bankovnictví se globalizovalo a velké banky vzájemně držely své špatné úvěry. Krach bankovnictví způsobil úvěrové zadrhnutí. Tok půjček vyschl a ekonomiky se začaly smršťovat.

Vlády tedy sanovaly banky i ekonomiky, čímž vytvořily suverénní dluhovou krizi. Všichni se usilovně snažili oddlužovat a ekonomiky se z toho nedokázaly vzpamatovat. Velká část světa – zejména Evropa, ale také jen o málo méně churavějící USA – dál vězí v polovičním poklesu.

Jak tedy z této propasti uniknout? Hlavní debata porovnává úsporná opatření se stimulem. Zastánci úspor věří, že důvěru investorů obnoví pouze vyrovnání státních rozpočtů a snížení státních dluhů. Keynesiáni jsou zase přesvědčeni, že bez velkého fiskálního stimulu – záměrného dočasného prohloubení schodku – zůstanou evropská a americká ekonomika ještě několik příštích let v recesi.

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