展望危机之后的IMF

华盛顿——20国集团峰会召开之时,聚集在匹兹堡的世界各国领导人将评估已付诸实施的经济措施的成效,并讨论如何协调行动,从而平稳有序地收回这些措施。领导人需要强化对于大型跨国银行资本要求的国际指导方针,并纠正那些有害的金融激励因素,正是此类因素导致了金融业不负责任的冒险行为。然而,他们能够留下的影响最持久的成就莫过于,危机过后给予国际货币基金组织(IMF)更广泛的权限。

危机期间,IMF的作用大为增强。该机构成功地促成了全球协调的财政和货币刺激政策,从而为避免周期性经济崩溃发挥了作用。IMF掌握的资金增加了2倍,因此,它得以救助了被国际资本市场所抛弃而差异甚大的冰岛、巴基斯坦和乌克兰等国家。而且,该机构还援助低收入国家,以前所未有的零利率向其发放了巨额贷款。

针对上述转变,20国集团发挥领导作用,推动各方提供了政治和金融支持,IMF则采取了敏捷的应对措施。然而,一种切实的风险在于,随着世界经济缓慢复苏,应对危机的政治动力将会消退。

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