El FMI y la coordinación mundial

NUEVA YORK – Antes de la crisis de 2008, el Fondo Monetario Internacional estaba en decadencia. La demanda de préstamos era escasa, por lo que tenía pocos ingresos. Asia seguía recelando del Fondo aun diez años después de las crisis monetarias de finales del decenio de 1990. Sus talentos analíticos seguían siendo grandes, pero los reajustes de plantilla los pusieron en peligro.

La crisis cambió todo eso. Quedó claro que correspondía al FMI un papel decisivo en la tarea de abordar la inestabilidad inducida por la crisis. Además, gracias a los amplios y muy arraigados conocimientos técnicos multinacionales, sus actividades son fundamentales para lograr soluciones cooperativas a escala mundial para los problemas económicos y financieros. Sin dichas soluciones, el sistema tendrá tendencia a volverse periódicamente inestable y a seguir sendas insostenibles que acaben destructivamente. Acabamos de vivir uno de esos episodios.

El FMI es necesario para la consecución de varios objetivos decisivos. Uno de ellos tiene que ver con la reacción ante las crisis. En una conmoción financiera mundial como la nuestra más reciente, las corrientes de capitales cambian de rumbo abrupta y espectacularmente, con lo que causan problemas en materia de crédito, financiación y balanza de pagos, además de unos tipos de cambio inestables. Si no se abordan, dichos problemas pueden causar daños generalizados en una gran diversidad de países, muchos de los cuales son espectadores inocentes.

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