L'heure des technocrates

CAMBRIDGE – Succombant sous les dettes et enlisées dans une crise en raison de leur système politique, la Grèce et l'Italie ont placé des technocrates, Lucas Papademos et Mario Monti, plutôt que des politiciens à la tête de leur nouveau gouvernement. Tous deux peuvent être qualifiés de professeur : Monti a été président de l'université Bocconi de Milan et commissaire européen, tandis que Papademos a été mon collègue à laKennedy School of Government de  Harvard après avoir accompli son mandat de vice-gouverneur de la Banque centrale européenne (BCE).

Ils feront sans doute bientôt la une des journaux avec des titres du style "Les professeurs ont 20/20 en économie, mais un zéro pointé en politique". Ce sera injuste, car ce n'est pas un manque de savoir-faire politique qui va les bloquer, mais un pouvoir insuffisant.

Malgré toute la popularité de son gouvernement de technocrates, Monti ne dispose pas d'une majorité parlementaire sur laquelle s'appuyer. Le Premier ministre sortant, Berlusconi, a clairement indiqué qu'il n'était pas disposé à donner la priorité à l'intérêt du pays sur le sien propre. Papademos est dans une position encore plus difficile. On lui a refusé un mandat supérieur à trois mois, ainsi que la possibilité de choisir lui-même un certain nombre de membres de son cabinet.

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