Dvacetiny války v Zálivu

NEW YORK – Tento měsíc uplynulo 20 let od doby, kdy Saddám Husajn, tehdy neotřesitelný vládce Iráku, podnikl invazi do Kuvajtu. Následovala první velká mezinárodní krize po skončení studené války, která během necelého roku vyústila v osvobození Kuvajtu, jakož i vzkříšení jeho vlády. Dosaženo toho bylo za nevysokou lidskou i ekonomickou cenu, již platila mimořádná mnohonárodní koalice sestavená prezidentem Georgem H.W. Bushem.

Od té doby Spojené státy nasadily vojenskou sílu vícekrát a pro řadu účelů. Dnes USA pracují na tom, aby se vymanily z druhého konfliktu, který se týká Iráku, snaží se přijít na způsob jak se pohnout vpřed v Afghánistánu a zvažují použití síly proti Íránu. Přirozeně se tedy nabízí otázka: v čem se můžeme poučit z první irácké války, všeobecně pokládané za vojenský a diplomatický úspěch?

Jedna důležitá lekce pramení z důvodů k válce. Změnit chování státu mimo jeho hranice je jedna věc, ale změnit dění na území cizího státu je něco naprosto jiného. Podstatou války v Zálivu v letech 1990-1991 bylo zvrátit iráckou ozbrojenou agresi, tedy konání, které bylo v zásadním nesouladu s úctou ke svrchovanosti, nejzákladnějšímu ze všech pravidel, jimiž se v dnešním světě řídí mezistátní vztahy. Jakmile byly irácké síly v roce 1991 vypuzeny z Kuvajtu, USA nemašírovaly do Bagdádu, aby vyměnily iráckou vládu – a nezůstaly ani v Kuvajtu, aby mu vštípily demokracii.

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