I Confini Sfumati della Politica Economica

MILANO – In tutto il mondo, politiche, tecnologie e processi di apprendimento diffuso si sono combinati per erodere le barriere all’integrazione economica tra paesi. Si scelga qualsiasi indicatore: il commercio rispetto al PIL globale, i flussi di capitale rispetto allo stock globale, e via dicendo - tutti stanno aumentando.

Me le politiche economiche sono stabilite a livello nazionale e, con poche eccezioni rimarcabili come le negoziazioni commerciali e il rilevamento del finanziamento delle organizzazioni terroriste e del riciclaggio di denaro sporco, i politici stabiliscono obiettivi che abbiano come scopo un miglioramento dell’economia interna. E queste politiche (o cambiamenti di politiche) stanno influenzando sempre di più le altre economie ed il sistema globale, dando luogo a quelle che possono essere chiamate delle “esternalità politiche” – cioè, conseguenze che vanno al di là dell’ambiente obiettivo dei politici.

Certamente, queste esternalità ci sono sempre state. Ma erano abitualmente di piccola entità. Nel momento in cui divento più importanti (come risultato di una più grande connettività globale), diventano inevitabilmente più difficili da gestire. Dopo tutto, un’ottimizzazione globale necessiterebbe di un'autorità con il potere di stabilire politiche a livello globale, che in questo momento non abbiamo.

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