Les frontières troubles de la politique économique

MILAN – Partout dans le monde, les politiques adoptées, la technologie et les processus d'apprentissage avancé se combinent pour faciliter les interactions économiques au niveau international. Tous les indicateurs le montrent, qu'il s'agisse du chiffre d'affaires du commerce mondial rapporté au PIB mondial, du flux de capitaux rapporté au montant du capital mondial, ou encore d'autres indicateurs.

Mais les politiques économiques sont établies au niveau national (à quelques notables exceptions comme les négociations commerciales et les enquêtes sur le financement du terrorisme ou le blanchiment d'argent) et sont destinées à servir l'intérêt national. Pourtant elles affectent de plus en plus les économies des autres pays, ainsi que le systéme mondial, ce qui donne naissance à ce que l'on pourrait qualifier d'effets externes - les conséquences de décisions politiques en dehors de l'objectif ciblé.

Ce phénomène a toujours existé, mais à une petite échelle. Il prend de l'importance en raison d'un monde de plus en plus connecté, il est donc de plus en plus difficile à gérer. L'optimisation de la mondialisation nécessite une autorité politique mondiale qui n'existe pas.

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