Margaret Scott

希腊迷局

欧元是一种独有奇特的产物,一直在市场上接受着检验。欧元的创造者之一奥特马·伊兴正确地阐述出欧元创建的原则:欧元是一种货币联盟,不是政治联盟。加入的成员国只是建立一个共同的中央银行,但并没有设立相关共同税收系统,这项原则在马斯垂克条约的 125 条中有清楚的写明。这也是德国最高法庭积极重申的一点。

然后,这种原则也有自身缺陷。一种成熟的货币需要有一个央行和财政部。财政部不是为日常纳税人服务的,而是为了危机而准备的。当金融体系面临崩溃之时,央行可以提供流动资金,但只有财政部能处理偿付问题。这也是在欧元创建之时众所周知的事情。伊兴承认,他也相信,“在没有建立政治联盟之前就建构一个货币联盟,其实是一种本末倒置。”

欧盟的设置其实就是一种本末倒置:设置有限但政治性的目标和时间表,由于其不完备性,人们相信随后的步骤就会跟上补充。但出于种种原因,前进的进程被迫中断。欧盟的现状就是这样形成的。

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