Die große Job-Maschine

Bis zum dritten Quartal dieses Jahres betraf der wesentliche Zweifel in Bezug auf die amerikanische Wirtschaft den pyrrhusartigen Character ihrer ,,joblosen" Konjunkturerholung. Dann, im September und Oktober dieses Jahres, wuchs die Nettobeschäftigung um 290.000 Stellen, was deutlich über den meisten Prognosen lag. Während jedoch mehr als 300.000 neue Arbeitsplätze auf dem Dienstleistungssektor geschaffen wurden, gingen mehr als 50.000 Stellen in der verarbeitenden Industrie verloren. Dies ist mehr, als sich durch den langfristigen Wandel der Wirtschaft weg von der Industrie und hin zu Dienstleistungen erklären lässt.

Gleichzeitig weist der sprunghafte Anstieg bei der Arbeitsproduktivität in der verarbeitenden Industrie - 7,2% im dritten Quartal - darauf hin, dass dort nach wie vor starke Überkapazitäten bestehen. Man sollte deshalb nicht erwarten, dass eine mögliche zukünftige Verbesserung bei den Arbeitsmarktzahlen ihren Ursprung in den Fabriken hat. Vielmehr ist es die größere Flexibilität des Dienstleistungssektors, die den neuerlichen Beschäftigungsanstieg in den USA hervorgebracht hat.

Belege für einen solchen Anstieg gibt es zuhauf. So hat z.B. Kohl's, ein großes Kaufhausunternehmen, im Oktober 48 neue Standorte eröffnet und dabei in jedem davon etwa 140 Mitarbeiter eingestellt. Stop & Shop, eine Supermarktkette, hat wieder einen Trageservice von der Kasse zum Auto des Kunden eingeführt - etwas, das bereits vor Jahrzehnten abgeschafft worden war - und hat die Öffnungszeiten in vielen Geschäften verlängert.

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