La globalización de la senectud

Los activistas globalifóbicos se quejan de que los ricos se están haciendo más ricos. Eso es verdad en muchos aspectos. Sin embargo, los países ricos también están envejeciendo. Este "envejecimiento" de las naciones más ricas del mundo afectará profundamente no sólo a esas sociedades, sino también a los países más pobres.

Según la ONU, la población mundial es actualmente de 6 mil trescientos millones de personas y llegará a 9 mil trescientos millones para mediados del siglo. Se prevé un incremento en la población de 60 años o más de los 629 millones que son hoy en día a 2 mil millones hacia el 2050. Además, la población de edad avanzada misma está envejeciendo. El grupo de 80 años o más constituye el segmento de la población que está creciendo más rápido. Para el 2050, su participación en el grupo de 60 o más aumentará del 12% al 19%.

Este "envejecimiento del mundo" es el resultado natural de la caída en las tasas de fertilidad y el aumento de las expectativas de vida. Aunque la disminución en la fertilidad es global, su ritmo varía de país a país. Los países ricos de Europa, América del Norte y el Este de Asia tienen una proporción de ancianos mucho mayor que los países en desarrollo. Las reducciones en la fertilidad en las zonas más ricas del mundo ya han llevado las tasas de crecimiento de la población a casi cero.

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