Mondialisation et vieillissement

Les militants anti-mondialisation se plaignent de ce que les pays riches deviennent de plus en plus riches. C'est vrai, mais ils deviennent aussi de plus en plus vieux, ce qui est lourd de conséquences, même pour les pays pauvres.

D'après l'ONU, la population mondiale qui est aujourd'hui de 6,3 milliards d'habitants devrait atteindre 9,3 milliards en 2050. La tranche de population âgée de plus de 60 ans passera de 629 millions à près de 2 milliards en 2050 et son âge moyen s'élève progressivement. Les personnes de plus de 80 ans constituent le segment de la population qui augmente le plus vite. Il représentera 19% des personnes âgées de plus de 60 ans en 2050, contre 12% aujourd'hui.

Le vieillissement de la population mondiale est la conséquence naturelle de la baisse de la fertilité et de l'augmentation de l'espérance de vie. Si la baisse de la fertilité est un phénomène général, elle est plus ou moins accentuée selon les régions du globe. La proportion de personnes âgées est bien plus grande en Europe, en Amérique du Nord et en Asie de l'Est que dans les pays en voie de développement. Du fait de la baisse de la fertilité dans les pays riches, les taux de croissance de leur population sont proches de zéro.

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