Paul Lachine

O Futuro do Conflito Ideológico

WARWICK - As eleições presidenciais francesas concluídas recentemente pareciam sugerir que as antigas divisões entre esquerda e direita se mantêm tão fortes como sempre - e decerto estão na sua terra de origem. Mas estarão?

O espectro político moderno é um artefacto da distribuição dos assentos na Assembleia Nacional francesa após a revolução de 1789. À direita do presidente da Assembleia sentavam-se os apoiantes do rei e da Igreja, enquanto à esquerda se sentavam os membros da oposição, cujo único ponto de concordância era a necessidade de uma reforma institucional. A divisão tirou partido de antigas associações culturais de direita e de esquerda com confiança e desconfiança, respectivamente - neste caso, do status quo.

Em retrospectiva, é notável que esta divisão tenha conseguido definir alianças políticas partidárias por mais de 200 anos, absorvendo tanto o grande movimento reaccionário como os movimentos radicais dos séculos XIX e XX. Mas o decréscimo no número de eleitores na maioria das democracias actuais sugere que esta forma de conceptualizar as diferenças ideológicas pode ter-se tornado obsoleta. Houve até quem argumentasse que as ideologias e os partidos são irrelevantes num cenário político cada vez mais fragmentado.

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