Le syndrome Fukushima

BIRMINGHAM – Les dramatiques évènements survenus à la centrale nucléaire Daiichi de Fukushima au Japon l’année dernière à la suite du tsunami sont généralement qualifiés de «amp#160;désastre de Fukushima.amp#160;» Il n’en faut pas plus pour appréhender l’ensemble significatif des idées reçues sur l’énergie nucléaire.

C’est bien le tsunami, provoqué par le plus important tremblement de terre ayant jamais frappé le Japon, qui a entrainé la mort de plus de 16 000 personnes, détruit ou endommagé environ 125 000 bâtiments, et laissé le pays face à ce que le Premier ministre a décrit comme la crise la plus importante du pays depuis la seconde guerre mondiale. Mais c’est Fukushima qui est généralement étiqueté de «amp#160;désastre.amp#160;»

En fait, même si ce qui s’est passé est choquant, les évènements survenus dans les heures et les jours qui suivirent l’impact de la vague géante qui s’est abattue sur le mur maritime de protection de la centrale nucléaire pourrait être interprété comme un remarquable testament du solide bilan de l’énergie nucléaire. Bien sûr, il faudra de nombreuses années pour réparer l’impact environnemental sur les personnes qui habitaient autour de Fukushima. Mais la réponse apportée en plusieurs points de la planète – et elle n’est pas des moindres en Allemagne, en Suisse et dans les pays qui ont immédiatement condamné et abandonné l’énergie nucléaire – a une fois encore été typique de l’absence tenace de connaissances sur deux questions fondamentales.

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