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重新探索女性的奥秘

奥林匹亚,华盛顿——今年是贝蒂·弗里丹《女性的奥秘》一书出版45周年纪念日。今天,许多保守派社会人士仍然责备弗里丹和女权运动诱使女性抛开家庭去寻找工作,不仅破坏了家庭的稳定,还让他们的子女陷入危险的境地。


可是女权主义与其说是女性加入劳动大军的原因,还不如说是这种现象的结果。在西欧和美国,早期资本主义把大批年轻的单身女性吸引到纺织等行业中去。工厂主们常常修建宿舍,提供给年轻的女性工人居住。这些女性工人中有许多人成了反奴运动和女权运动的早期支持者,而中产阶级女性也从劳动女性对公共生活的积极参与中受到了鼓舞(有时甚至充满了羡慕和嫉妒的情绪)。

随着弗里丹的著作在1963年的出版,资本主义将已婚妇女吸引到不断发展的服务、办公以及资讯领域中来。弗里丹的理念与这样一代女性对话,她们已不再把付薪工作看作是青春期和婚姻之间的临时中转,主流社会坚持认为只有成为家庭主妇才是她们生命唯一的意义令她们倍感沮丧。

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