Il bilanciamento dei tecnocrati

ISTANBUL – Una visione semplicistica (in realtà ingenua) dei mercati sostiene che essi debbano esistere quasi in uno “stato di natura”. Il mondo ideale, secondo questa stessa visione, sarebbe quello in cui i mercati sono essere liberi di operare senza alcuna interferenza da parte dei governi. In base ad una visione altrettanto semplicistica, la democrazia sarebbe invece un sistema politico in cui le elezioni periodiche e concorrenziali danno al vincitore il diritto di governare senza restrizioni.

La realtà è ben più complessa, ovviamente. I mercati possono funzionare solo all’interno di un quadro legale ed istituzionale che comprenda i diritti di proprietà, l’applicazione dei contratti, il controllo della qualità e delle informazioni e molte altre norme che regolano le transazioni.

Allo stesso modo, se da un lato delle elezioni concorrenziali sono essenziali per qualsiasi sistema democratico, dall’altro l’atteggiamento del “chi vince prende tutto” rispetto al risultato elettorale, con il potere concentrato nelle mani del vincitore, è incompatibile con la democrazia a lungo termine. Le democrazie che funzionano bene sono radicate su leggi costituzionali complesse e altre norme che separano il potere esecutivo dal potere legislativo e dal potere giudiziario e che proteggono la libertà di espressione, di riunione e dissenso pacifico da parte di chi perde le elezioni.

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