Ложная панацея гибкости рынка труда

АМСТЕРДАМ. Конкурентоспособность стала одним из экономических модных терминов нашего времени. Барак Обама возвестил об этом в своем послании «О положении страны» в январе этого года, а европейские лидеры, от тори Дэвида Кэмерона в Великобритании, социалиста Хосе Луиса Сапатеро в Испании и до нового министра экономики Каору Есано, отдали ей приоритетное место. Но какую конкурентоспособность они имеют в виду?

Когда у бывшего председателя ФРС США Алана Гринспена спросили во время интервью в сентябре 2007 года, должны ли европейские правительства в своих странах либерализировать трудовое законодательство, он ответил, что европейские законы о защите трудящихся значительно тормозили экономические показатели и привели к хронически высокому уровню безработицы на всем континенте. В Соединенных Штатах людей уволить значительно легче, чем в любой другой стране, а уровень безработицы в то время был одним из самых низких в мире.

Но уже не сентябрь 2007 года, и уровень безработицы в США составляет 9,4%, а не 4,5%. И, по мнению преемника Гринспена, Бена Бернанке, нет никаких оснований считать, что уровень безработицы приблизится к 5% ‑ что обычно считается естественным уровнем безработицы ‑ в ближайшее время.

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