John Overmyer

L’evoluzione strutturale della crescita globale

NEW YORK – Dalla fine della Seconda Guerra mondiale, il grado di apertura commerciale e finanziaria dell’economia globale è aumentato, grazie ad istituzioni quali il Fondo monetario internazionale e ai successivi accordi di liberalizzazione, a partire dal General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) del 1947. In parallelo, il colonialismo ha subito un tracollo, e ora siamo a metà strada nel processo secolare di modernizzazione   che è in corso nei paesi emergenti. Ma a che punto è arrivato questo processo, dove ci sta portando, e aspetto ancor più importante, in che modo possiamo influenzarne l’andamento?

Considerate le ridotte barriere formali al commercio e ai flussi di capitale, per accelerare la crescita e i cambiamenti strutturali nelle economie post-coloniali e in altri paesi in via di sviluppo sono entrate in gioco diverse strategie, quali ad esempio i progressi sul fronte tecnologico (soprattutto nei trasporti e nelle comunicazioni), nell’innovazione manageriale delle multinazionali e nell’integrazione delle catene di fornitura di queste società.

Così, nel primo periodo post-bellico, i paesi in via di sviluppo, le cui esportazioni si basavano principalmente sulle risorse naturali e sui prodotti agricoli, si aprirono al manifatturiero ad alto impiego di manodopera: tessuti e abiti in primis, seguiti da valigie, stoviglie, giocattoli e altri prodotti. Inoltre, le catene di fornitura erano disperse a livello geografico, mentre i componenti e i processi a minore valore aggiunto erano allocati in paesi a basso reddito.

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