Конец «конца истории»

На всем протяжении современной эпохи либеральные государства сосуществовали со многими видами тирании. В современном мире всегда присутствовали различные экономические системы, включая разные формы капитализма, плановой и направляемой экономики, а также множество гибридных видов, классифицировать которые довольно сложно.

Развитие дипломатии и международного права было обусловлено фактом существования различных форм государственного строя и власти. Однако в 20-ом веке мировая политика формировалась под влиянием идеи объединения мира в рамках единой политической и экономической системы. Пока советский режим сохранял приверженность марксистской идеологии, его долгосрочной целью было построение коммунизма во всем мире. Все страны мира должны были стать частью единой социалистической экономической системы при одинаковой для всех форме государственного управления.

Эти марксистские планы сегодня справедливо считаются утопическими. Однако схождение марксистской идеологии с мировой политической арены не сопровождалось признанием многообразия политических систем. С падением коммунизма мы находились, как выразился Френсис Фукуяма, в «конце истории», когда правительства стран Запада могли направить свои усилия на объединение мирового сообщества в единую политическую и экономическую систему, основанную на принципах свободного рынка и демократической форме правления. Однако этот проект столь же утопичен, как когда-то идея марксизма, и обещает быть еще более недолговечным, чем существование Советского Союза.

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