危机后的全球治理架构

发自牛津——在五年前雷曼兄弟崩溃全球金融危机爆发之时,许多人瞥见了曙光:更有效全球经济治理的承诺即将兑现。但尽管已经推动了一系列初步动议,世界与这一目标之间的距离仍然像往常那样遥远。

在2009年4月G20伦敦峰会上成立的金融稳定委员会(FSB)并不具备法律授权或强制执行力,也没有为覆盖所有的国家而订立的正式流程。国际货币基金组织仍然在等待着何时能将资本扩充一倍(这是另一个早年立下的誓言),其现有资源绝大部分被困在欧洲,治理改革也停滞不前。世界银行可调动的资源已经实现了适度增长,但仍未建立超越现有借款人和贷款协议的全球性迅速放贷能力,而其收入轨迹也在递减。

但与此同时,对有效全球经济治理的需求却比以往更加迫切。极大受益于贸易和投资条约中附加的开放市场条款,银行及其他金融机构四处进行国际化扩张,可一旦出现问题时却没有法定的强制责任去要他们为自己的损失负上适当责任。相反,据称大量的风险都因一众公共和私人“标准制定”组织所发布的自愿性准则而得到控制。

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