La etapa final egipcia

PRINCETON – ¿Puede la larga historia de Egipto ayudarnos a entender el alzamiento, ya caratulado como revolución, que hoy se está produciendo en El Cairo, y cómo podría terminar? Creo que sí. Después de todo, las manifestaciones de millones de personas para exigir el fin del régimen del presidente Hosni Mubarak y su Partido Nacional Democrático (PND) no son un fenómeno sin precedentes en el país.

La historia de Egipto está plagada de gobernantes poderosos y famosos (empezando por Ramsés II en los tiempos faraónicos, pasando por Saladino, Muhammad Ali, Napoleón Bonaparte, Lord Cromer, hasta el trío militar egipcio de Gamal Abdel Nasser, Anwar El Sadat y Mubarak). Esto sugiere que, si bien los egipcios quizá no necesariamente prefieran ser gobernados por un hombre fuerte, se sienten plenamente cómodos con eso y hasta pueden creer que es necesario.

Con certeza, las revueltas populares no son nada nuevo en Egipto. Las multitudes se alzaron contra las fuerzas francesas de Napoleón en 1798, contra la monarquía en 1881-1882, contra el dominio británico en 1919 y 1952, contra Sadat en 1977 y contra Mubarak en 1986. Esos levantamientos fueron reprimidos, muchas veces de manera brutal, primero por tropas extranjeras (el ejército francés en 1798 y los soldados británicos en 1882 y 1919) y más recientemente por el ejército egipcio.

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