Le Mythe de l’éducation

Nous savons tous qu’acquérir plus de formation est une bonne chose, particulièrement pour notre avenir économique. C’est pourquoi de nombreux pays, notamment en Europe, se sont fixés des objectifs chiffrés pour faire avancer leur politique en matière d’éducation : 50 % de participation au niveau universitaire pour la Grande-Bretagne ou la Suède, par exemple, ou encore 80 % d’une classe d’âge au baccalauréat en France. La grande idée du Chancelier Schröeder pour résoudre les problèmes économiques en Allemagne reste, bien sûr, l’éducation : intégrer encore plus d’étudiants dans le premier cycle universitaire qui se débat déjà pour faire face à ceux qui y sont actuellement intégrés. 

Les gouvernements voient leur tâche principale en terme de prospérité économique et l’éducation leur semble être l’outil nécessaire et efficace pour parvenir à leurs fins. Mais est-ce bien le cas ?

On nous dit que dans une « économie des savoirs » un pays a besoin de toujours plus de diplômés et de formations institutionnalisées pour rester compétitive. Mais l’éducation ne peut tout simplement pas assurer la croissance économique de la façon dont les politiciens -- et les hommes d’affaires -- en rêvent : plus d’éducation ne signifie pas systématiquement plus de croissance. Pire encore, les politiques d’éducation qui découlent de ces croyances actuelles ont des conséquences négatives sérieuses sur les possibilités offertes aux jeunes et sur la qualité de l’éducation elle-même.

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