El disidente y el Mahatma

NUEVA DELHI – Con la entrega del premio Nobel de la Paz este mes sin la presencia del galardonado de este año, el encarcelado disidente chino Liu Xiaobo, podría ser oportuno recordar a un hombre que nunca ganó ese premio: el Mahatma Gandhi. Pese a esa omisión, no cabe duda de la importancia mundial de Gandhiji, también para Liu.

Ahora la imagen del Mahatma aparece en campañas publicitarias de cualquier cosa: desde computadoras Apple a plumas Mont Blanc. Cuando la película Gandhi de Richard Attenborough arrasó con los Oscars en 1983, los carteles de la película proclamaban que “el triunfo de Gandhi cambió el mundo para siempre”, pero, ¿de verdad fue así?

La defensa del cambio encabezado por Gandhi corresponde principalmente al dirigente americano de los derechos civiles Martin Luther King, Jr., que asistió a una conferencia sobre Gandhi, compró media docena de libros sobre el Mahatma y adoptó la satyagraha como precepto y método. Al encabezar la lucha para acabar con la segregación en el sur de los Estados Unidos, King utilizó la no violencia más eficazmente que nadie fuera de la India. “El odio engendra odio. La violencia engendra violencia”, declaró memorablemente. “Debemos afrontar las fuerzas del odio con la fuerza del alma”.

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