Болезни глобализации

Глобализация находится под большим давлением, чем когда-либо раньше. Это давление чувствуется повсюду. Большая часть расположенных к югу от Сахары стран Африки, а также Южной Америки, Ближнего Востока и Средней Азии находятся в состоянии застоя или экономического спада. В Северной Америке, Западной Европе и Японии наблюдается медленный экономический подъем при постоянном риске возобновления рецессии. Над Ираком нависла угроза войны.

Для сторонников открытых рынков и свободной торговли такое положение вещей представляет собой серьезную проблему. Почему глобализация оказалась в опасности? Почему создается впечатление, что ее блага концентрируются в небольшом количестве стран? Можно ли достигнуть более сбалансированной глобализации?

Легких ответов на эти вопросы не существует. Открытые рынки необходимы для экономического роста, но вряд ли они являются достаточным условием. Некоторые регионы мира извлекли огромную пользу из глобализации; в качестве ярких примеров можно привести страны Восточной Азии и Китай на протяжении последних лет. Однако некоторым регионам глобализация принесла весьма неблагоприятные последствия, особенно странам Африки, расположенным к югу от Сахары.

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