La Crise de la démocratie thaïlandaise

Un an après sa réélection en une victoire écrasante, le Premier ministre thaïlandais Thaksin Shinawatra s’est vu forcé de dissoudre l’Assemblée nationale et d’organiser des élections à l’improviste. Bien que son parti, le Thai Rak Thai (TRT), dirige une majorité de 75 % à l’Assemblée nationale, M. Thaksin se retrouve assiégé. Il reste très populaire chez les électeurs ruraux et les citadins pauvres qui représentent plus de 60 % de l’électorat thaïlandais mais il doit combattre l’intelligentsia et les classes moyennes à l’origine d’une insurrection partisane basée à Bangkok qui s’élève contre sa loi.

Ils accusent M. Thaksin, l’homme d’affaires le plus riche de la Thaïlande, de corruption et de trahison après la vente détaxée de la Corporation Shin, qui appartient à sa famille, à Temasek Holdings, appartenant au gouvernement de Singapour, pour 1,9 milliards USD. Ce retour de fortune politique précipité pour M. Thaksin fait la preuve des limites de l’urne électorale, tout comme des défauts de la démocratie qui assaillent maintenant bien des pays en développement, notamment ses voisins dans la région, les Philippines.

Jusque récemment, M. Thaksin semblait aussi inattaquable dans son pays qu’il était audacieux et crédible à l’étranger. C’est en exploitant la profonde division thaïlandaise entre la campagne et les villes, M. Thaksin s’est percé un chemin au bulldozer pour arriver au pouvoir en 2001 avec une plate-forme populiste. Il a ravivé la fierté populaire et promis à la Thaïlande rurale que son pays s’élèverait à nouveau à une certaine grandeur après la crise économique de 1997 si dévastatrice.

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