Le coût des inégalités entre les hommes et les femmes

Depuis longtemps, les femmes actives du monde entier trouvent injuste d’être moins bien payées que les hommes. Or, la disparité des salaires entre les hommes et les femmes est bien plus qu’injuste : elle est aussi économiquement préjudiciable.

Selon les économistes du Fonds monétaire international, les inégalités entre les sexes coûtent chaque année des milliards de dollars à la croissance économique mondiale. Un échantillon de 40 pays pauvres et riches révèle l’existence d’un lien étroit entre le statut économique et social des femmes et la croissance économique globale. Le manque d’éducation, de soins de santé et de perspectives économiques et sociales – à la fois absolu et relatif par rapport aux hommes – inhibe la croissance économique. A contrario, la croissance économique améliore la condition subalterne des femmes.

Dans son rapport La situation des enfants dans le monde 2007 , l’UNICEF montre que l’égalité des sexes présente un double avantage : les femmes instruites et en bonne santé élèvent des enfants instruits et en bonne santé. D’après l’UNICEF, les femmes se sentent plus responsables des soins du ménage que les hommes et dépensent davantage en nourriture, en médicaments et pour l’éducation de leurs enfants. La solution que propose l’UNICEF pour les nations en développement – c’est-à-dire que les femmes prennent en charge le foyer et l’éducation des enfants – est en fait la cause du problème.

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