Paul Lachine

أين تعمل أوروبا

ستوكهولم ــ في حين تغلي المدن السويدية منذ أسابيع بلهيب أعمال الشغب التي يقوم بها مهاجرون عاطلون عن العمل، فإن العديد من المراقبين يرون في هذا فشلاً للنموذج الاقتصادي المتبع في السويد. ولكنهم مخطئون. ذلك أن النموذج السويدي/الاسكندنافي الذي برز على مدار السنوات العشرين الماضية قدم المسار العملي الوحيد الذي شهدته أوروبا طيلة عقود من الزمان نحو تحقيق النمو المستدام.

ويتعين على الأوروبيين أن يتذكروا تصورات القوة والضعف تتغير بسرعة. ففي ثمانينيات القرن العشرين كانت الدول الاسكندنافية تعاني من عجز مزمن في الميزانية، وارتفاع معدلات التضخم، وخفض القيمة بشكل متكرر. وفي عام 1999، أطلقت مجلة الإيكونوميست على ألمانيا وصف "رجل اليورو المريض" ــ شاهد على التصلب الأوروبي، مع انخفاض النمو وارتفاع البطالة.

ولكن الآن، اختفي شبح خفض القيمة من دول شمال أوروبا. فالموازنات قريبة من التوازن، في ظل إنفاق عام أقل ومعدلات ضريبية أكثر انخفاضا، في حين تعافى النمو الاقتصادي. لقد بدأ تحول دولة الرفاهة الأوروبية القديمة في شمال أوروبا، وهو في طريقه إلى أغلب بقية بلدان القارة.

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