Die Versuchung der Cäsaren

BUENOS AIRES – Der honduranische Präsident Manuel Zelaya ist am 28. Juni durch einen Putsch abgesetzt worden, und sein Versuch ein Referendum durchzuführen, um seine Wiederwahl zu ermöglichen, ist somit gescheitert. Der ehemalige Präsident Nestor Kirchner erlitt am selben Tag eine Niederlage bei einer Zwischenwahl in Argentinien, die von vielen als Test dafür betrachtet wurde, ob er oder seine Frau Cristina, die gegenwärtige Präsidentin Argentiniens und Nestors Nachfolgerin, nach der Wahl 2011 weiterhin das Amt des Präsidenten ausüben würden oder nicht. Beide Ereignisse kristallisieren ein für Lateinamerika charakteristisches Phänomen heraus: Die Versuchung einen neuen, lokalen Cäsar zu ermächtigen.

Diese Idee des „Cäsarismus“ ist nicht neu. Stattdessen stellt sie die Rückkehr zu einer Praxis dar, die scheinbar dem Mülleimer der Geschichte anvertraut worden war, nun aber mit aller Macht zurückgekehrt ist.

Im Jahr 1919 wurde die erste Ausgabe des von dem venezolanischen Historiker und Soziologen Laureano Vallenilla Lanz verfassten Democratic Caesarism veröffentlicht, ein Buch, das auf dem gesamten Kontinent hohe Auflagen erreichte. Vallenilla behauptete auf der Suche nach einem effektiven (im Gegensatz zu einem formellen) Verfassungssystem für sein Land zu sein.

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