Las patas rotas del comercio mundial

NUEVA YORK – La Ronda de Doha, la última fase de las negociaciones comerciales multilaterales, fracasó en noviembre de 2011, después de diez años de conversaciones, pese a las gestiones oficiales de muchos países, incluidos el Reino Unido y Alemania, y de casi todos los eminentes estudiosos actuales del comercio. Aunque los funcionarios del comercio de los Estados Unidos y de la Unión Europea culparon a las exigencias excesivas de los países en desarrollo del G-22 del fracaso de las anteriores negociaciones celebradas en Cancún en 2003, existe coincidencia general en que esta vez han sido los EE.UU., cuyas injustificadas (e inflexibles) exigencias dieron la puntilla a las conversaciones. Y ahora, ¿qué?

El fracaso en el intento de conseguir la liberalización multilateral del comercio concluyendo la Ronda de Doha significa que el mundo ha perdido los beneficios resultantes del comercio que un tratado logrado habría brindado, pero no acaba ahí la cosa precisamente: el fracaso de Doha detendrá prácticamente la liberalización comercial multilateral durante años.

Naturalmente, las negociaciones comerciales multilaterales son una de las tres patas que sostienen la Organización Mundial del Comercio, pero la rotura de esa pata afecta negativamente al funcionamiento de las otras dos: la autoridad de la OMC para formular normas y su mecanismo de solución de controversias. También a ese respecto los costos pueden ser cuantiosos.

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