Un nuevo Banco de Desarrollo para un mundo nuevo

NUEVA YORK – A la conclusión de su cumbre celebrada en marzo en Durban, los dirigentes de los BRICS (el Brasil, Rusia, la India, China y Sudáfrica) anunciaron su intención de crear un nuevo Banco de Desarrollo encaminado a “movilizar recursos para proyectos de infraestructuras y de desarrollo sostenible en los BRICS y otras economías en ascenso y países en desarrollo”.

No se puede sobreestimar la importancia de esa decisión. Para empezar, refleja los enormes éxitos en materia de desarrollo sostenible habidos en los cuatro últimos decenios (el PIB agregado de los BRICS es ahora mayor que el de los países avanzados cuando se fundaron las instituciones de Bretton Woods) y la reequilibración de la capacidad económica mundial que entraña. De hecho, esa decisión demuestra la capacidad y la disposición de los BRICS para cooperar entre sí en pro de su beneficio propio y del mundo entero. Los mercados en ascenso y los países en desarrollo están tomando su futuro en sus manos en un momento en el que los países ricos se las arreglan como pueden para resolver sus problemas autoinfligidos.

La necesidad de un nuevo banco de desarrollo es evidente. Tan sólo las necesidades en materia de infraestructuras en las economías con mercados emergentes y los países de ingresos escasos son enormes: 1.400 millones de personas carecen aún de una electricidad fiable; 900 millones, de acceso a agua potable; y 2.600 millones, de saneamiento adecuado. Al mismo tiempo, unos 2.000 millones de personas se trasladarán a vivir en ciudades en el próximo cuarto de siglo. Y las autoridades deben velar por que las inversiones sean medioambientalmente sostenibles.

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